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Málkov

History of small foothills villages is often to a great extent shrouded in mystery as there is in most cases nearly no proof kept on its development. Neither the villages Málkov, Ahníkov, Zásada, Zelená, Vysoká and Lideň are excluded therefrom. Even the few records kept were after World War II nearly completely destroyed, often only because they were written in German. In the history of these villages is much uncleared, which will hardly ever be explained.

       None of above villages has any reference to its origin. The rumour is that they were founded in order to create a steady economic background for the castle Hasištejn, founded at the beginning of the 14th century.

        First reports on Málkov come from the year 1361.  The village is indicated as villa Malkow, and belongs to the dominion Hasištejn. Another report comes as late as in 1533, saying that Málkov was pledged to the lords of Fictum. First owner of the house of Fictums of the village was Bohuslav Felix of Fictum on Buchelberg. In1608 the property Málkov was attached to dominion Prunéřov. On the turn of the 16th and 17th century it was bought by Christof Workatsch, who lost it in following days due to a rebellion. In 1618 there is the first report on the mill called "infernal", that is likely to date back to the 14th century.

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        After the defeat of the insurrection of the Estates in 1621 came to to extensive confiscation of the noblemen´ s property who had supported the insurrection. Also the Fictums were among them. They lost thus enormous property and were forced to leave the country. Two years later the local estates were sold.. The property was bought in three stages by Jaroslav Bořita, earl of Martinic (known as that one thrown out of the window of the Prague castle during 2nd  Defenestration of Prague). In the first stage he gained 15 villages, including Ahníkov and a half of Zásada. In the 2nd one he bought 4 villages and yards, including Málkov and Zelená. In the last one he gained Kralupy together with a landed estate and mill, estate Henkelhof, part of the village Naší and the second part of Zásada. This resulted in getting a dominion mentioned as Ahníkov - Prunéřov. This dominion belonged then to Bořita of Martinic and his heirs until 1880.

        In the period of the Thirty Years´war the whole country was ravaged by troops passing through. Málkov´s peasants were tormented by corvée, rates and contributions, due to the war there broke out a few destructive fires in 1642. In 1644 roistered here  the Swedes, in 1647 their ravages turned the village in ruins. This was just this time when also „the infernal mill“ was plundered.

        In 1668 Maxmilián Valentin of Martinic on Ahníkov extended subjects´line of inheritance, at the same time however labour duties up to 15 days a year. The corvée together with rates was beig increased to such extent that in 1680 came to country rebellions over whole Bohemia. Either Málkov and surrounding villages didn´t certainly avoid this movement, direct evidence thereof is however not available. Another period of rebellions broke out two years later, situation is to a certain extent mitigated as late as Maria Theresa´s patent was released in 1775. By end 17th century efforts were made to mine silver, in 1703 they were however, due to low productivity, terminated. In 1764 a bell tower and by end of the 18th century St. Joseph chapel were founded in the village.

        During the rule of  the  Martinic Málkov belonged to Ahníkov, in 1625 to 1789 legal documents (as contracts of purchase) were concluded in Málkov, however in presence of  mayor, deponents and with Ahníkov commissioner´s consent. Since 1792 contracts were already issued in Ahníkov at a seignorial office. In 1848 serfdom was abolished and in 1850 villages became independent authorities,  power of seignorial and judicial authority in Ahníkov being thus taken over by the District authority in Chomutov.

        In 1835 broke out a small fire here and 3 houses and 2 barleys burnt down. In 1866 Málkov was included into the craftsmen corporation in Místo, in 1895 a firemen association was founded here.

        In 1914 a war conflict arose between Austro-Hungary and Serbia, which then turned into the world war. Its consequences will soon affect each part of our country. Population of all villages suffered of the more worsening economic situation of the country, rations to flour, bread,later also to potatoes, straw, hay, cattle, eggs, milk, butter…were initiated. The more poverty, the greater effort was made to keep secret of reserves and to prevent them. This was related to denunciation, house searches and confiscations. Certain inhabitants of cities began to appear at times, who tried to buy food at very high prices or to exchange it for – for peasants very precious things – petroleum, sugar, soap, tobacco…

        The biggest disaster for the village was however conscript of every man in active age to arms. There were about 40 in Málkov, which meant that over quarter of population went away from the village. Their work was compensated therefore by the other –  mostly by women, who in addition to their everyday duties in household and with children also cut corn, worked with ploughs and performed other heavy works. In 1918 war ended at last and an independent Czechoslovak republic was declared. Life began slowly to get in its former line and men returned to their families again. 10 men came back to Málkov with injuries, 7 men stayed for a certain time in captivity and 6 out of them had never seen their home again.

        Attempt to declare an independent province "Deutschbohmen" on the area of Bohemia failed, new arisen state took control of even border districts with majority German population. This development was difficult to bear by the Germans, first they ignored or refused all coming from the Czech side. In June 1919 local council election was held, where only two parties participated in: German farmers unit and German social democratic labour party. A novelty reached  Málkov those times – electric current.

        The power station of Kadaň supplied it since 1921. At first it was accepted with mistrust, but people persuaded soon of its advantages and it began to be used not only for lighting, but also to drive machines on the sawmill, in the mill and elsewhere. Public line network costs were distributed in individuals according to their financial circumstances. In 1923 there was another local council election held. This time the social democratic party did not také part in election, the Farmer unit became thus the only candidate and winner.

        The year 1925 began very unhappily for Málkov. In February there was committed a murder here. The victim was a 25 year old  owner of no.4 estate - Eduard Paschaweh, the murderer has never been tracked down. Another unhappy event was the fire of the house no. 8, when at night to 16th June the oldest inhabitant of the village – 80-year old Franz Tauber lost his life. Rest of this year went quietly off and under building. Two burnt down houses were rebuilt and three new buildings were built up.

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        Following election was held under superiority of the Farmers´unit and German social democrats, in 1929 however also German National social  labour party (NSDAP) considerable strengthened. By end of 20ies old wood bridges were pulled down on the brook Hutná and replaced with concrete ones in turn. In the same period water pipeline was laid down from the municipal well, in 1930 the chapel was redeveloped. In 1928-29 was very severe winter, which resulted in great damages on fruit trees and brought about loss of lots of animals.

        Population census made in 1930 in Málkov resulted in 275 inhabitants, out of which 274 Germans and one Pole. In 1932 there was pitched a training area near the village. In October 1933 activity of NSDAP was forbidden due to their leaders´open standing up against the ČSR. Thereupon however arose Henlein´s Sudeten-German party (SdP), which had nearly immediately reached main influence among the Germans. It was proven in following election, where SdP gained the triple of votes compared to number of votes of so far major Farmers unit. Social democrats dropped even lower. In 1938 Austria was annected to Germany. This resulted in increased actiivity of SdP. The Czech Army was twice mobilized this year and occupied the forts, built along the borders to Germany. The line of defence stretched also between Málkov and Černovice. It consisted of bunkers (pillboxes), built one each 200-300 meters away from the other and made of ditches and hurdles of barbed wire. The most active folowers of SdP for fear to be arrested escaped to the Empire, r8 persons escaped right from Málkov.

        On 30th September 1938 the Czechoslovak government accepted Munich Agreement, which was followed by occupation of border areas of the republic (s.c. Sudeten) by teh German Army on 1st October. This act was enthusiastically accepted by Málkov population (absolute majority were Germans) and welcome as liberation from the Czechs. All the houses had flags with swastika hanged out, most of them were decorated with garlands and branches of conifer …A German Reich organization begins since  1st April 1939 to function in old Sudeten-German villages.

        Referring to the World War II we are only sure that there was pitched a prison and labour camp in Málkov. Eorkers and war prisoners from the east set to forced labour worked at a local sawmill. We are sorry to have no kept archived documents even about the period after World War II, most eventsis thus derived from the ones happened in Zelená, about which more reports have retained. After the war there rose (probably) in 1949 a unified farmers´cooperative in Málkov. In the framework of the territory organization it was however cancelled in 1960 and its property went over to the Czechoslovak state farm. The same year on 30th June a village Ahníkov was annexed to Málkov.

        In spite of the fact that most citizens worked in industrial enterprises out of the village, in the early 70ies Málkov had a rather agricultural character. There was a plant of the professional enterprise of  the State farm in Málkov oriented to stock farming and plant-growing, plant of orchards, a , Lesotechnické meliorace Teplice with the seat in Málkov and Lesní závod - polesí Černovice. There were built bus waiting rooms,  redeveloped public lighting , adapted roads, built housing units in Zelená and restored the school building in Zásada. In addition it was a scheduled s.c. action „Z“, which based on a unpaid temporary job included also building 20 benches, redevelopment of a resaturant and adaptation of a dam in Zelená. In 1977 the seat of MNV (local authority) was relocated to Zelená, in the same year a relocation of the brook Hutná was finished and in autumn rails of the new railway ČSD were laid across the road in Zásada. By end of the 70ies a post office was relocated from Kralupy to Málkov.

        By end of the 70ies the power station Prunéřov II construction began near Málkov. Northbohemian browncoalfield began to buy out cottages from some citizens and some were assigned plots for building new houses. New premises for orchards Ahníkov in Zelená began to get ready – near to the water reservoir being finished. A new built station was opened on 2nd October 1978 in Málkov. On 28th October 1980 citizens, the national committee and the National front were awarded with „Certificate of merit of the Council of the district national committe in Chomutov“ for effort made to fulfil election programme in the years 1976-81. Early in the 80ies there was finished a multi-purpose reservoir in the village.

        In 1981 the village was again awarded with „Certificate of merit of the Council of the district national committe in Chomutov“ for excellent fulfillment of tasks and Osvětová beseda was in addition awarded the title "Excellent club unit of the Northbohemian region". Number of population of Málkov sank considerably every year, those days it had „but“ 635 inhabitants. One year later Málkov was given other rewards. This time it was "Honorary acknowledgement of the Commision of the Council SKNV for tourism" and win in the consent "Challenge cup of the Council of the district national committee in Chomutov". In 1983 number of population sank to 573, in the following year it was only 448.

        In 1984 settlements Ahníkov and Zásada definitively declined. As compensation for a nursery in Zásada a sanitary facility with a clubroom in the public pool premises in Zelená was proposed as one of options. The proposal was accepted, which resulted in both rebuilding this facility and relocation of designed construction of cottages from Zelená to Málkov, followed by extension of water and power supply line and building a sanitary facility on the playground in Málkov.

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        In the same year there was for the third time and for ever awarded a title „Excellent cultural centre of the Northbohemian region“ in Osvětová beseda in Málkov. In 1987 a group of allotments was set up on the estate released by the state farm. In the following year there was finished construction of 5 blocks of flats followed by extension of public lighting, construction of a new road and a small bridge across a slip road and construction of sewerage.Also installation of gas began in the village Zelená.

        1989 refers to s.c. "Velvet revolution", which  is said to have passed absolutely quietly in Málkov, without any perturbation. Former National front´s activities were dampened and entrepreneurial activities began to develop such as anywhere else.

         Mid 1995 a commission for citizens affairs was restored. On 11th November the St. Joseph chapel was reconsecrated. In 1996 redevelopment of the municipal authority building was finished, part of which was a repair of the fire station. In 1998 Parliament of the CR approved a village´s own coat of arms and Málkov gained the right to present itself whenever the future.

        For the period 1998-2002 the local council approved a plan of 20 points. Transfer to gas heating in Málkov and Zelená, finishing sewerage in Málkov, reconstruction of roads, solution of lack of flats, support of entrepreneurial activities were priorities …In March 1998 works on sewerage in Málkov started up. Works were finished till the end of the year, including construction of STP. Local radio was installed in all the flats in the course of the year. Tennis courts with artificial lawn were pitched next to the football ground.

        Málkov of today is a promissingly developing village caring for its citizens´needs.

        As early as in 14th century a gothic fort was to be found in Ahníko, which belonged to the castle Hasištejn, whose holder was since 1418 Mikuláš Chudý of Lobkovic. When dividing estate of the house of Lobkovic a hundred years later the village Ahníkov was gained by another Mikuláš of Lobkovic, vassalage in this village came onto his brother Václav. This is however one year later sold, together with the half of Hasištejn, to the family of Šlik of Holejč. By end 15th century the fort of Ahníkov is held by Mikuláš Chlup, in  1530 gains it husband of one of  Chlup´s daughters Petr Velemyský of Velemyšleves. Following holder of the fort in 1567 is Vít of Hartenberk.

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        In 1578 Bohuslav Felix of Lobkovic sold the village Ahníkov to Linhart Štampach, Lobkovic´commissioner on Hasištejn. This buys in 1606 also Hasištejn together with 11 villages and yards initiating the dominion of Ahníkov.

        As Linhart was a keen follower of Reformation, he let catholic priests expel from parishes of his possessions. Another significant change made by him in this region was rebuilding of Ahníkov´s fort to a chateau seat. Also his son followed this rebuilding, he didn´t however manage to finish it as he was dispossessed of majority of his property, including Ahníkov,  due to participation in the uprising of Estates in 1621. In 1623 Jaroslav Bořita, earl of Martinic bought the dominion,  he gained also Prunéřov and many other villages and thus founded a vast dominion Ahníkov - Prunéřov (see Chapter Málkov).

        This dominion was successively controlled by Bořita´s sons Adam, Bernard Ignác and Maxmilián Valentin, down to its division in 1678 into three parts. Ahníkov fell to the youngest one - Maxmilián Quidobald. He became thus a founder of the Ahníkov´s side of the family of Martinic. A bell was made under his rule in 1693, as Ahníkov hadn´t yet had a chaple nor a belltower, it had to be fixed on the „oak fitted with ramification“. The last Martinic holder on Ahníkov was František Karel. By his death in 1789 Ahníkov side of Martinic dies on the spear side. Teh dominion thus got united again under the name of Ahníkov - Prunéřov and two years later it was inherited by the last Martinic´s daughter of the side of  Prunéřov Marie Anna of Althan. In 1810 the dominion was taken over by her daughter Marie Anna, married countess of Firmian, and then it was inherited by her nephew, earl Wolkenstein - Trostburg. After his death all was gained by his son, who sells idominion in 1880 to an industrial magnate František Preidl. Another holder was after his death Preidl´s nephew Emanuel Karsch.

        By end of 19th century there were about over 300 inhabitants in Ahníkov. They lived predominantly by agriculture, there were however also a lot of workers, whose majority worked in Dominion´s services, partly also in surrounding mines. It was milk farming that began to develop in this period at the local large estate. After the independent Czechoslovakia has been declared there came to intensive estate reform concerning above all the local large estate in Ahníkov.

        Hardly could be found a village anywhere else which has never met with an accident. Ahníkov met with a few accidents in the 19th century – three fires in the years 1878, 1883 and 1894, out of which the most destructive (in 1894) destructed 5 houses and farm buildings. The village was plagued by floods and hailstorms, out of which happened in the years 1856, 1860 and 1896.

        We´re sorry to have only few conserved documents about World War II and so we are only sure that there had been pitched a prison camp of the allied armies at the chateau of Ahníkov during the war.

         In 1960 Ahníkov was within a new territory layout annexed to Málkov as its settlement. In 1981 first inhabitants began to leave it. On 1st July 1985 the settlement Ahníkov was cancelled due to progressing mining of coal.       

        Precise time of the origing of the village Zásada is unknown. It is most likely to heve been founded in the middle of the 13th century, first mention thereof dates however back to the year 1361 and concerns the time when the village belonged to the cloister Grunhain in Saxony.

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        In 1413 Zásada was, together with Naše and Račice, for reason of a better arondation, exchanged by lords of Šumburk for the town Schlettau in Saxony. 5 years later Mikuláš Chudý of Lobkovic became a pawn lord of Hasištejn, to which belonged also Zásada. In 1490 came to dividing of the estate of the house of Lobkovic, whereby Zásada was divided into two parts, out of which first fell to Mikuláš III. of Lobkovic and second to Bohuslav Hasištejnský of Lobkovic. After Bohuslav´s death the 2nd part of  Zásada fell in 1510 to Mikuláš IV. of Lobkovic. He sold it however in 1527 to a burgher of Kadaň Václav Worsch. Until end of 16th century there were in turn the following holders of Zásada – lord of Vidpach, Šebestián of Veitmile and the Šmohař family of Rochov, with seat at Kralupy. In 1615 Linhart of Štampach buys both divided parts of Zásada, and they bacome thus part of the dominion of Ahníkov. Since then  Zásada has shared its history.

        For many years since then the village has been „internally divided“. Left-shore part belonged e.g. to the branch church in Krbice and the right-shore part to the branch church in Račice. Division of the like concerned also a school, until the whole village waas integrated in 1824 to the school in Krbice. Zásada had no own school until from 1870.

        Nearly no information is known about the time of World War II, a prison camp is likely to have been pitched here, such as in most villages around here. After the war Czech school started its activities in the village, German population had been evacuated and replaced with new settlers- above all from Kladno area. This population found job above all in the surrounding mines. Only part of population worked in agriculture, which did not answer character of the former nearly exclusively agricultural village. At the turn of the 40ies and 50ies there arose a unified farmers´cooperative, which was however after a few years, due to a lot of troubles cancelled again and the workers incorporated in the state farm.

        Just as the settlement Ahníkov also Zásada came to an end on 1st July 1985 due to progress in mining.

       Such as all surrounding villages Zelená was founded early in the 14th century. Despite 1st report about its existence dates back to as late as 1490. Those times the village belonged to dominion Hasištejn. In 1533 it was gained as pladge by Bohuslav Felix of Fictum from Šumburk. From 1623, when the village fell to Jaroslav Bořita, earl of Martinic, it shares fates of dominion Ahníkov - Prunéřov.

       By end 17th century the village was affected with two tragedies. Ferst in 1659 a hailstorm ravaged all local country estates and in 1680 plague broke out and 11 persons lost their lives.

        In 1800 a belltower was built in the village, 11 years later it was extended to a chapel. In the early 20ies of 19th century the village purchased fire extinguishers. Post office and gendarme post were in Kralupy, in the village there was only one night watchman, working for benefits. Around this period the village population amounts to about 150 inhabitants. In the years 1881 and 1896 Zelená was hit by two terrible storms which caused here extensive damage. Flood caused by 2nd storm even destroyed  several surrounding fields and meadows. In 1893 there was founded a local Farmers´and foresters´unit, 3 years later also a voluntary firemen unit.

        As of 1913 a census was taken in Zelená, whereby it was found out that there were 205 inhabitants in the village, all of them of the German nationality. After World War I a proposal was released in 1919 by the district authority that the villages Zelená, Zásada, Málkov and Ahníkov get integrated in one village. This suggestion however met with opposition and the village Zelená rejected it in principle. In September of this year was purchased and consecrated a bell for the local chapel. In March 1921 local committee voted for accession to the Association for electricity for the court district Chomutov, the proposal was however rejected. In September of this year the village closed at last a contract with Chomutov´s firm Legit on construction of power supply network. In 1931 Zelená refused participation in building the state phone network. In 1934 there was set up a local well, one year later a local chapel is repaired.

         We know nearly nothing about events in Zelená during World War II, a few archived documents is conserved from as late as after-war development. Evacuation of the Germans, contrary to surrounding villages, was here rather delayed until December 1945.

        In 1947 local radio broadcast was installed in the village, on 10th December 1949 a meeting of the preparatory committee for setting up a Unified farmers´cooperative took place. In the early 50ies settlement of the village was finished. On 2nd February 1958 the Council of Municipal national authority in Zelená commented positively on integration of the villages Málkov, Zásada and Zelená and at the same time it suggested for the integrated villages to be called Sadová. Although the villages got integrated, the common name "Sadová" however has never come into its own. In 1960 local JZD (unified farmers´cooperative) was cancelled and transferred to the state farm. After cancellation of the settlement  Zásada there was established a nursery in Zelená in 1985, in 1997 there was installed public lighting in the village.

         These days there is a post office and a health centre here and in addition a local authority of Málkov. Zelená has recently enjoyed great rise. Last population census of the village accounted in 1991 for 312 inhabitants.

        As the villages Vysoká and Lideň are situated next to one another, they have nearly the same history. That´s why we´re going to talk about them together. First record of their existence dates back to 1281. In this year Chotěbor of Račice gives both villages to the German Knights Order in Chomutov. To Vysoká belonged those days probably a very profitable glassworks, this was however not the subject of donation.

        In the 16th century both villages were part of the dominion of Chomutov. Those days there lived about 80 inhabitants in Vysoká, in Liden by a half less. Both villages had a privilege of Chomutov from 1571 on intake of its beer. Chomutov buys itself in 1605 out of serfdom, Lideň and Vysoká thus don´t belong to its dominion any more, they are integrated to the part, centre of which is Březno. This part of the former dominion Chomutov is bought out by Leonhard of Štampach. As of 1654 the owner of the villages becomes Otto, a hereditary noble, earl of Trauburk, owning the dominion Poláky, into which the villages were incorporated.

        In 1779 there was opened an iron-ore mine by Liden. In 1835 Lideň was hit by a disaster – a fire broke here out  and destroyed 4 estates and a chapel. The chapel was 5 years later rebuilt again. In mid 19th century Vysoká has its school, through the parish both villages belong to Křímov. In 1880 there was built a chapel with two bells in Vysoká. In 1893 Lideň was hit by another fire. This time over a half of houses burnt down here. In the years 1897-98 there were constructed two new roads here, first went from Celná across Vysoká to Liden, second one from Vysoká Jedle to Celná. End  19th century majority of people in Vysoká, such as in surrounding villages, lived by agriculture, and also 20 craftsmen and traders developed their activities here. In Lideň, on the contrary, people were exclusively occupied with agriculture.

        There was situated (and is still likely to be) a lot of abundant springs around both villages. These were used above all for watering a grazing cattle. In 1907 there was built a 300 m long water main network in Vysoká. In periods of drought only drinking water was allowed to take,  service water was supplied from some surrounding wells.

        From the period of World War II only one information has come down to our days, it is dated 11th Sept. 1944. This was just on the day when the Ore Mountains should have been bombed wide around. In fact a well known air battle over Kovářská between American bombers and German fighters is concerned, where it came to an emergency drop of bombs from American planes so that they could better fight back against German attacks. One bomb happened to have damaged one house in Vysoká. After World War II district woods of Blahuňov, Liden, Spořice, Stráž, Sobětice, Výsluní and Hora sv. Šebestián were linked together in a Forest cooperative. In 1954 they were taken over in State farms management. End of the 50ies  derelict and by most dilapidated houses were pulled down by the army in Vysoká. In the 70ies there were built up some holiday houses in Lideň, which belonged those days to Místo.

        Vysoká is nowadays a typical holiday and cottager´s village, coming alive on the weekends and holidays. There proceeded "Village recovery programme" here, within which there took place a few significant actions for the village – roads made accessible, installation od modern public lighting service and a local radio broadcast, a fire water tank was repaired, now used for bathing. All the buildings in the settlement are in excellent state . No permanent inhabitant was living yet in vysoká by recent population census in1991.

        "Village recovery programme" took place also in Liden. It covered a repair of the chapel (1999 reconsecrated) and installation of pubilc sighting service and radio broadcast. There is also a mobile radiostation here, enabling through the Mines Nástup connection to world. In 1991 there lived two permanent inhabitants in Lideň.

References:

Vachata, Z.

Málkov a jeho osady. Málkov 2000

 

Binterová, Z.

Zaniklé obce Chomutovska I. Chomutov 1995

 

Blažíček, J.

Čítanka ke středověkým dějinám chomutovského okresu. Chomutov 1968

 

Menclová, D.

České hrady I a II. Praha 1976

 

 

Obecní kronika Málkova z let 1925 - 1939

 

 

Kronika obce Málkov z let 1971 - 1998